One of the sustainability criteria important for residue use for pellet production is the total (direct) greenhouse gas emissions across the supply chain. Greenhouse gas emissions are calculated based on the same characteristics of the pellet production cost. GHG emissions of transport are, just as the cost, taken from the BIT-UU model.
In this case the GHG emissions are given for the three different import countries that are analysed. This in order to avoid underestimating the GHG emissions. Other mechanisms except cost will most likely also influence the export of pellets to a certain country. Therefore it is important to take into account the GHG emissions of pellet export to the different countries.
The below figure shows the GHG supply Curve for Ukraine in the 2020 BAU scenario. The GHG emissions per Oblast and type of feedstock do not differ between the different scenarios, what does differ is the total potential of residues.
Aggregate greenhouse gas supply curves for the potentials from Ukraine